62 Verbs 'hvatam', 'držim' and 'puštam'

The three verbs hvatam, držim and puštam mean respectively "catch", "hold", and "release, let go".

Verbs hvatam and držim are impf. and therefore verbs derived from them follow the asymmetric pattern; puštam ~ pustim and verbs derived from them follow the symmetric pattern (that is, ones derived from puštam are impf., and ones derived from pustim are perf.

The derived verbs are quite important, you'll see the range of their meanings.

hvatam; -hvatim ~ -hvaćam

Unfortunately, the verb hvatam impf. has an irregular derivation pattern: verbs are actually derived from -hvaćam (impf.) and -hvatim (perf.) That's one of irregularities in Croatian. It's maybe worth mentioning that this irregularity does not exist in Serbian: the same prefixes there are attached simply to hvatam (the meanings are identical, as usual)! Let's check the meanings:

do-N AN reaches, grasps A
obu-N AN encircles, envolves A
pri-N A
N da...
N accepts A
N accepts that...
s-N A
N da...
N understands A
N understands that...
u-N AN catches A
za-N AN encroaches, gripes A

For example:

Prihvaćam pomoć "I accept help"
Uhvatio säm loptu "I caught the ball"
Ne shvaćam problem "I don't understand the problem"

These verbs are stressed as:

prìhvaćām, prìhvaćati ~ prìhvatīm, prìhvatiti

The base verb and the one derived with s- are stressed as:

hvatām, hvatati
shvaćām, shvaćati ~ shvatīm, shvatiti

Passive participles are formed from -hvaćen, e.g. uhvaćen "caught", and gerunds as hvatanje, -hvaćanje.

držim; -državam ~ -držim

The verb držim, držao "hold" (impf.) does not have a perf. counterpart. Its meaning is physically holding or possessing something; in Croatian, you don't "hold someone responsible" etc. You can just hold things in your hand or possess them. All verbs derived from it are perf., and the impf. ones are made with -državam

iz-N (A)N endures (A)
o-N (A)N maintains A
po-N (A)N supports A
pri-N (A)N holds A a bit, for a while
uz-N se (od G)N refrains (from G)
N AN subsists A
za-N AN withholds, keeps A

Podržavam prijëdlog "I support the proposal"

It's stressed like (ř's are r's are stressed with the short falling stress due to difficulties of graphic representation):

dřžīm, dřžati
zadřžāvām zadržávati ~ zàdržīm, zadřžati

Passive adjectives are formed as držan, -državan, and gerunds as držanje, -državanje. održavanje means "maintenance", but it's not really a derived meaning.

puštam ~ pustim

The verb puštam ~ pustim means simply "release, let go". Verbs derived from it are variations of the meaning, and are very often used:

do-N A
N D da...
N allows A
N lets D INF
N lets D ...
is-N AN emits, releases, drops A
na-N AN abandons A
o-N A
N se
N relaxes A
N relaxes
ot-N AN sacks, fires A (from a job)
po-N (A)
N gives in, N loosens A
N yields to D
prë-N A (D)N relinquishes, gives over A (to D)
pro-N AN misses, overlooks, lets pass A
ras-N AN adjourns, dismisses A
s-N A
N se
N lowers A
N descends
za-N AN neglects A

For example:

Opustila säm se. "I have relaxed."

The verb and the derived ones are stressed like this (the one derived with s- is again stressed like the base verb):

nàpūštām, napúštati ~ nàpustīm, napùstiti
pūštām, púštati ~ pustīm, pùstiti

The verb opuštam ~ opustim is the way to say "relax". Passive participles are formed as (opuštan), opušten; gerunds are like opuštanje. Some gerunds have special meanings:

dopuštenje "permission"

Updated 2013-10-09

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